By Eric Schmidt
Tuesday, February 9, 2010; 10:14 AM

We can see it reflected in our search trends at Google: Too many people are out of work, and the fear of unemployment is changing the behavior of millions more. In the fall, searches related to back-to-school shopping and holiday travel bookings peaked weeks later than usual, as families put off spending as long as possible. At the same time, queries for payday loans have gone up a third in the past two years.

To spur job creation and alleviate the fear of unemployment, the United States will need to tackle what Commerce Secretary Gary Locke has called our "innovation deficit." We have been world leaders in innovation for generations. It has driven our economy, employment growth and our rising prosperity. But much of the cutting-edge research and development in key areas such as renewable energy now takes place outside the United States. There's a real chance that the "green Silicon Valley" will take root in Germany or China. We can't afford to let that happen.

Addressing the innovation deficit requires rethinking our innovation model. We can no longer rely on the top-down approach of the 20th century, when big investments in the military and NASA spun off to the wider economy. Now that the Internet has put abundant information and powerful tools in everyone's hands, innovation is often driven from the bottom up. The ideas that power our next generation of growth are just as likely to originate in a coffee shop as in the laboratory of a big corporation.

More than ever, innovation is disruptive and messy. It can't be controlled or predicted. The only way to ensure it can flourish is to create the best possible environment -- and then get out of the way. It's a question of learning to live with a mess.

First, start-ups and smaller businesses must be able to compete on equal terms with their larger rivals. They don't need favors, just a level playing field. Congress should ensure that every bill it passes promotes competition over protecting the interests of incumbents.


Second, encouraging risk-taking means tolerating failure -- provided we learn from it. If we want to be a leader in new industries such as green energy, we have to accept that some of our investments won't pan out. Show me a program with a 100 percent success rate, and I'll show you one with 0 percent innovation.

Third, we need to invest more in our knowledge base. The decision by Congress to double science funding last year was a big step in the right direction. Now we need to extend the R&D tax credit so businesses can confidently invest in their future.

Fourth, information must become even more open and accessible. Government-funded research should be made public through "a Wikipedia of ideas," so entrepreneurs can harness ideas commercially. High-speed Internet access must be much more widely available. Broadband is a major driver of new jobs and businesses, yet we rank only 15th in the world for access. More government support for broadband remains critical.

Finally, we need to hang on to talented people. The best and brightest from around the world come to study at U.S. universities. After graduation, they are forced to leave because they can't get visas. It's ridiculous to export such talent to our competition.

We have everything else we need to climb out of the current morass. Right now, somewhere in the United States, someone is working at a kitchen table, in a dorm room or a garage, developing an idea that could not only create a new industry but could also just possibly change the world. If we provide the right environment, she'll do the rest.

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Enterprise Architecture Design and the Integrated Architecture Framework
by Andrew Macaulay

Enterprise Architecture in Context
 Over the past few years, and as software and systems engineering has matured, it has become accepted that there is a clear need for an 'architectural view' of systems. This need has grown as a result of the increasing complexity within and between business. Furthermore, continued pressure to reduce IT costs and deliver real, quantifiable business benefit from solutions necessitate a clear understanding of how systems support and enable the business.
 The 'architecture view' of systems (both business and IT systems) is defined in the ANSI/IEEE Standard 1471 - 2000 as: 'the fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles evolution'. Further to this high-level definition, and in the same way as there are different levels of architecture within building ( city plans, zoning plans and building plans), it is important to classify business and IT architecture into a number of different levels:
Enterprise Architecture.
 Defining the overall form and function of systems(business and IT) across an enterprise (including partners and organizations forming the extended enterprise), and providing a framework, standards and guidelines for project-level architectures. The vision provided by the Enterprise Architecture allows the development of consistent and appropriate systems the enterprise with the ability to work together, collaborate, or integrate where and when required.

문맥에서의 엔터프라이즈 아키텍처
 과거 몇 년 동안, 소프트웨어와 시스템 엔지니어링으로 신중하게, 시스템을 '아키텍처의 관점'으로 보는 요구가 받아들여지게 되었다. 이러한 요구는 비즈니스 사이와 내부에 존재하는 복잡성이 증가한 결과로 성장하게 되었다. 더군다나, 계속되는 IT 비용 감소 그리고 deliver real에 의한 압박, 시스템 지원과 비즈니스 가용을 분명하게 이해하는 것으로,,,솔루션으로부터 얻는 정량화할 수 있는 비즈니스 이익을 필요로 하게 되었다.
 시스템(비즈니스, IT 둘 다)의 '아키텍처의 관점' 은 ANSI/IEEE 1471 - 2000 에 다음과 같이 정의되어 있다. : ' 시스템을 구성하는 기본요소. 컴포넌트 안을 구체적으로 표현한, 각기 다른 서로에 대한 관계, 환경, 전개 원칙'. 이 고차원의 정의에 부언하자면, 빌딩 안의 각각의 다른 층.(도시 계획, 구역 계획, 빌딩 계획(?) ) , 비즈니스와 IT 아키텍처는 많은 다른 층을 분류하는 것이 중요하다.
엔터프라이즈 아키텍처
  엔터프라이즈를 가로지르는 시스템의 기능과 폼, 제공되는 프레임워크, 규정과 프로젝트 레벨에서의 가이드라인을 총체적으로 엔터프라이즈 아키텍처라고 정의한다. 엔터프라이즈 아키텍처에 의해 제공되는 비전은 일관된 개발과 함께 작업하고 협력하고 통합할 수 있는 능력을 어디서, 언제든 요구되는 순간에 제공할 수 있는 적절한 엔터프라이즈 시스템이다.

mature - (V) When a child or young animal matures, it becomes an adult.
(ADJ) If you describe someone as mature, you think that they are fully developed and balanced in their personality and emotional behavior.
quantifiable - (ADJ) Something that is quantifiable can be measured or counted in a scientific way.
necessitate - (V) If something necessitates an event, action, or situation, it makes it necessary.
embody - (V) To embody an idea or quality means to be a symbol or expression of that idea or quality.
further to -
evolution - (N) Evolution is a process of gradual change that takes place over many generations
classify - (V) To classify things means to divide them into groups or types so that things with similar characteristics are in the same group
consistent - (ADJ) Someone who is consistent always behaves in the same way, has the same attitudes towards people or things, or achieves the same level of success in something
integrate - (V) If someone integrates into a social group, or is integrated into it, they behave in such a way that they become part of the group or are accepted into it.






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